Tinea Pedis (Athlete’s Foot)

Athlete’s Foot Symptoms
A rash between the toes, on the soles, and on the sides of the feet characterized by flaking, peeling, or cracking of the skin. Blisters may develop. The area is very itchy and may burn. Often the toenils are discolored or ragged with fungal debris beneath the nails.

Athlete’s Foot Causes
Fungi that infect the superficial layer of skin. Athlete’s foot fungi are commonly spread in public facilities such as gyms, showers, and swimming pools.

Athlete’s Foot Treatment
Topical antifungal cream, powder, or spray on infected areas. It’s important to apply the cream to all areas of the foot, including between the toes. Oral antifungal medications may be necessary if the fungal infection is severe or if blisters have -developed. Toenail fungus (tinea ungium) is most effectively treated with oral antifungal medication.

Athlete’s Foot Prevention
Keep feet dry. Use antifungal powder regularly, especially if athlete’s foot is a recurring problem. Wear cotton socks and change them frequently if you sweat a lot. Avoid wearing damp socks or tight shoes in which fungi can grow. Protect your feet with waterproof footwear (flip-flops or water shoes) at public showers or swimming pools.

Striae Distensae (Stretch Marks)

Stretch Marks Symptoms
Light-colored or red lines or marks that commonly appear during pregnancy but also develop after sudden weight gain or loss, and in adolescents during growth spurts. The marks most often appear on the lower abdomen, buttocks, thighs, shoulders, and on the sides of the breasts.

Stretch Marks Causes
Rapid stretching of skin, which damages the skin proteins collagen and elastin.

Stretch Marks Treatment
In general it’s very difficult to eliminate stretch marks. Pulsed dye laser treatments that stimulate the production of new collagen and elastin may be used. Topical Retin-A, a vitamin A derivative, may also help minimize the appearance of stretch marks.

Stretch Marks Prevention
There is no way to prevent striae, but the sooner the marks are treated after they appear, the better the results.

Warts (Verruca Vulgaris)

Warts Symptoms
Skin growths that appear most commonly on hands and feet, but can grow anywhere on the body and last months to years.

Warts Causes
A common virus, human papilloma virus (HPV), that spreads through person-to-person contact or contact with a surface where the virus is present.

Warts Treatment
Over-the-counter medications containing up to 20 percent salicylic acid. If salicylic acid does not work or if warts are particularly troublesome, they can be removed through surgery, laser surgery, cry therapy (freezing with liquid nitrogen), or electrocautery (electrical burning), or via application of other topical medications recommended by your dermatologist.

Warts Prevention
Avoid spreading existing warts to other parts of the body by treating warts promptly and not using a razor on wart-infected skin. Do not pick, pull, or bite the wart. If you use public showers at gyms or public swimming pools, protect your feet by wearing waterproof footwear.

Tinea Versicolor

Tinea Versicolor Symptoms
White, red, or brown patches that develop most commonly on the trunk, neck, and extremities. Lesions may itch. Tinea versicolor may cause discoloration (hyperpigmentation or hypopigmentation) in “brown skin and is usually worse in the summer.

Tinea Versicolor Causes
A type of yeast known as Pityrosporum ovale. This disease is most common in tropical, humid environments.

Tinea Versicolor Treatment
Topical medications including selenium sulfide and other antifungal creams, lotions, shampoos, or solutions. Persistent or recurring lesions may be treated with oral antifungal drugs.

Tinea Versicolor Prevention
Periodic use (once monthly) of antifungal products may also be beneficial in controlling yeast.

Torn Earlobes

Torn Earlobes Symptoms
Tears in earlobe beginning where ears are pierced straight through the end of the lobe (or incomplete or partial tears).

Torn Earlobes Causes
Heavy, dangling earrings that stretch the hole in lobes over time; yanked or pulled earrings.

Torn Earlobes Treatment
Earlobe repair surgery or “reconstruction” done with sutures. A new ear hole can be created during the reconstruction or about three to six months after healing.

Torn Earlobes Prevention
Wear lightweight pierced earrings or clip-on earrings.

Seborrheic Keratosis

Seborrheic Keratosis Symptoms
Brown growths that range in diameter from a pinhead to half-dollar. They often have a broccoli-like surface. The growths may develop in clusters on the cheeks, where they are called dermatitis papulosa nigra.

Seborrheic Keratosis Causes
The cause of Kerasotes is unknown but the growths tend to develop more commonly during pregnancy and as women mature. They often run in families, so heredity is a factor.

Seborrheic Keratosis Treatment
Seborrheic Kerasotes do not pose a threat to your health but they may be unsightly or uncomfortable. You should have growths examined by a physician to rule out skin cancer. They can then be removed through cryotherapy (freezing with liquid nitrogen), curettage (scraping), or electrosurgery (electrical burning) or minor surgical excision.

Seborrheic Keratosis Prevention
Since the cause is unknown, there is no way to prevent seborrheic Kerasotes.

Seborrheic Dermatitis

Seborrheic Dermatitis Symptoms
Red, light, or dark skin patches with scales and flakiness that appear on the scalp, hairline, behind the ears or in the ears, in the eyebrows, and along the sides of the nose. Seborrheic dermatitis can also develop on the chest.

Seborrheic Dermatitis Causes
Excess oil, or sebum, in hair follicles. Yeast growth in sebum may also exacerbate the condition.

Seborrheic Dermatitis Treatment
Seborrheic dermatitis is not curable but it can be managed. Medicated shampoos containing either ketoconazole, corticosteroids, salicylic acid, selenium sulfide, sulfur, coal tar, or other ingredients will help control scalp symptoms. Leave the shampoo on the scalp for several minutes before rinsing. Prescription corticosteroid creams, ointments, gels, solutions, oils, or foams are often used if shampoos are not effective alone.

Seborrheic Dermatitis Prevention
You may need to alternate different medicated shampoos since they tend to lose their effectiveness over time.

Scabies

Scabies Symptoms
Intense itching that awakens you from sleep at night. Itchy bumps of various sizes or thin marks (called burrows) on skin. Scabies is most likely to appear on your extremities (wrists, finger web spaces) but can develop anywhere on the body, such as around the waist or on the nipples.

Scabies Causes
A mite (tiny insect) that burrows under the skin. Scabies spreads from per-son to person or through contact with the infected person, their, clothes or other personal items. Scabies tends to affect partners, entire families, or classrooms.

Scabies Prevention
Prescription creams or lotions such as Elimite or Kwell. Wash all clothing and bedding that came into contact during the previous five days in hot water, then dry in high heat to kill mites. Treat all infected family members at the same time and repeat the treatment after seven days.

Pityriasis Alba

Pityriasis Alba Symptoms
Round patches of lightened skin covered with fine scales. Pityriasis Alba tends to appear on the face. It is most common in children and adolescents but also occurs in adulthood.

Pityriasis Alba Causes
Pityriasis alba is a form of mild eczema. Though discoloration is temporary, it can be distressing for people of color. Sun exposure may make it more noticeable.

Pityriasis Alba Treatment
Hydrocortisone or other steroid creams.

Pityriasis Alba Prevention
Good emollients or lotions may help to make pityriasis alba less apparent.

Nail Fungus

Nail Fungus Symptoms
Initially a fungal infection begins with a tiny white or yellow spot on the nail. The nail will eventually become thickened with debris or material beneath the nail’s surface. It may turn yellow, green, brown, or black and become crumbly. Nails often separate from the underlying nail bed, giving a white appearance to the nail Fungal infections are most common in toenails but also affect fingernails. Fingernail fungus is very common, especially in women who wear acrylic nails. ‘Warning: A single black streak on one nail may indicate skin cancer in Hispanics and African Americans-see your doctor immediately.

Nail Fungus Causes
A fungus infects the nail, using the pail keratin (protein cells that compose the nail) as fuel or food. Fungal infections are commonly spread in public facilities such as gyms, showers, and swimming pools.

Nail Fungus Treatment
Oral antifungal medications, which you will need to take for twelve weeks for toenail fungus or six weeks for fingernail infections. At the completion of therapy, the existing nails will not appear normal but as the new nail –or nails grow, they will be normal although antifungal nail creams are not very effective for treating nail fungus, prescription antifungal nail lacquers may be helpful the nail lacquers require daily use for six to twelve months.

Nail Fungus Prevention
Keep feet and toenails dry. Use antifungal powder regularly. Wear cotton socks and change them frequently if you sweat a lot. Avoid wearing damp socks or tight shoes in which fungi can grow. Protect your feet with waterproof footwear such as flip-flops or water shoes at public showers or swimming pool. For fingernail care, wash hands frequently and dry them thoroughly. Don’t wear artificial nails for long periods of time, which may only mask and/or contribute to fungal infections. Only patronize nail salons with licensed practitioners and sanitized environments. Take your own nail implements with you each time you go to the manicurist.